octopus: a first-principles tool for excited electron-ion dynamics
We present a computer package aimed at the simulation of the electron–ion dynamics of finite systems, both in one and three dimensions, under the influence of time-dependent electromagnetic fields. The electronic degrees of freedom are treated quantum mechanically within the time-dependent Kohn–Sham formalism, while the ions are handled classically. All quantities are expanded in a regular mesh in real space, and the simulations are performed in real time. Although not optimized for that purpose, the program is also able to obtain static properties like ground-state geometries, or static polarizabilities. The method employed proved quite reliable and general, and has been successfully used to calculate linear and non-linear absorption spectra, harmonic spectra, laser induced fragmentation, etc. of a variety of systems, from small clusters to medium sized quantum dots.